Lesson 4 - Loops and @media in Sass

HTML and CSS Modern and professional web portfolio Loops and @media in Sass

In the previous lesson, Data types in Sass, we learned Sass data types. To use them efficiently, we're going to introduce loops and @media in today's Sass tutorial.

Let's hope it'll be added to regular CSS some day! As well as other preprocessor features. :)

Each

Each, written using the @each keyword, is a loop that takes values from a list or a map. We don't need to know the number of iterations of this loop - it'll simply go through all the items. Let's show how to declare the loop:

The $values variable contains a list or a map from which we take the values. The $value variable is an individual value of each item.

@each $value in $values {
      ... code ...
}

Exercise #1

We need to create hover styles for different social network links. Let's create a map of five different social networks which will contain the social networks' names as keys and colors as values. We'll use the each loop to create classes which we can assign to the links.

$sites: (
   ictsocial: #3b94e0,
   facebook: #3b5998,
   google: #DD4B39,
   twitter: #55acee,
   youtube: #e52d27
);

@each $site, $color in $sites {
   .site-#{$site}:hover {
      color: $color;
   }
}

The result in the compiled CSS:

.site-ictsocial:hover {
        color: #3b94e0; }
.site-facebook:hover {
        color: #3b5998; }
.site-google:hover {
        color: #DD4B39; }
.site-twitter:hover {
        color: #55acee; }
.site-youtube:hover {
        color: #e52d27; }

While

While, written using the @while keyword, is a loop that is running while a condition is true. The loop has to have such a condition which will make the loop stop sooner or later. This is how we declare the loop:

@while [condition] {
     ... code ....
}

For

For, written using the @for keyword, is a loop used for work with a predefined number of iterations. The loop uses a control variable to which we define the initial value and the final value. We can count from the initial value to the final value exclusively (the to keyword) or inclusively (the through keyword).

@for $i from $intial [to/through] $final {
  ... code ...
}

Exercise #2

Let's create simple columns for a 12-column grid. In our solution, only width will be calculated.

First, we'll create a $grid-count variable and store the number of columns in it - 12 in this case. In the loop, we'll create a class named .column-[number] to which we'll set the calculated width of the column.

$grid-count: 12;

@for $i from 1 through $grid-count{
   .column-#{$i} {
      width: (100% / $grid-count) * $i;
   }
}

The result in the compiled CSS:

.column-1 {
        width: 8.33333%;
}

.column-2 {
        width: 16.66667%;
}

.column-3 {
        width: 25%;
}

.column-4 {
        width: 33.33333%;
}

.column-5 {
        width: 41.66667%;
}

.column-6 {
        width: 50%;
}

.column-7 {
        width: 58.33333%;
}

.column-8 {
        width: 66.66667%;
}

.column-9 {
        width: 75%;
}

@media

Everyone surely knows CSS3 @media queries. In Sass, they have the same functionality which is styling elements based on the screen size. In Sass, @media is much easier to use since it supports nesting.

Exercise #3

We'll change the background color of paragraphs, center them and change their widths to 50%. We'll set the background color to blue for paragraphs wider than 500px and yellow for the rest. Of course, we won't use @media twice, but only once and smartly.

p {
   width: 50%;
   margin: 0px auto;
   background: yellow;

   @media (min-width: 500px) {
      background: blue;
   }
}

We could combine @media queries with loops as well. :) In the next lesson, CSS reset and the HTML5 layout, we'll learn to reset CSS styles and to create the HTML5 document structure.


 

 

Article has been written for you by Honza Bittner
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