Create a new HTML page and edit the contents as shown below:
When you run the page in your browser, it should contain the text "Hello ICT.social!".
This is what is referred to as a Hello World application, which are used in
programming lectures when teaching/learning a new language. Let's go over what
we've actually done. When the browser displays the HTML page, it goes from top
to bottom. If it reaches the
<script> tag, it recognizes the
immediately. Once the tag is closed, it continues parsing the page. This could
lead to issues if we wanted to modify an element at the bottom of the page using
head and launched not before the page is fully loaded. However, we'll deal with
all of that later. We now have our first command set up:
Just so you know,
document is an object, which represents the
HTML document (our web page).
Write is its method, which writes the
given text at the specified place in the HTML page. Anything we change on the
text "Hello ICT.social!" on the page. It's common to write a semicolon -
; after each command, even if it isn't necessarily in
Now we'll look how to work with the variables.
You should all know the word variable from your school. For all you
non-programmers, just know that it's a place in computer's memory where we can
store data and then work with it. Each variable has its data type. In
false, more on this in the next lesson), or an object. Data types
typed language (it dynamically changes the variables types according to their
keyword! In the past, the
var keyword was used for these purposes,
which is now only used to maintain backward compatibility. Surely you'll find it
in older source codes. If you don't use a keyword at all, unlike in other
languages, you'll create a global variable which might not always be what you
want. Global variables are accessible from all the scripts which may cause
Let's create a few variables:
let a; // creates a variable named a, which is empty for now let b = 40; // creates a variable named b with a value of 40 c = 30; // creates a global variable named c with a value of 30 s = "Text"; // creates a global variable named s which contains a string
The code shown above creates a few numeric variables and a variable that
contains text. We wrap text in quotation marks so the compiler knows that it's
dealing with text and not the name of some other variable or function. Also,
we've now seen how comments are written in code. These are notes for
programmers, which the interpreter (your browser) ignores. To write comments,
you use two slashes -
//. If you'd like to write a multi-line
*/. With variables, we're able to
do lots of operations. Let's start with some basic addition. We can add numbers
and even strings (join two pieces of text together). All of this is done using
We can even sum up a number and a
String. The interpreter
converts the number into a
String and then simply adds up both of
let a = 10; let b = 20; let c = a + b; document.write("The result of a and b added together: "); document.write(c); document.write("<br />"); // insert HTML tag for a new row let s1 = "10"; let s2 = "20"; let s3 = s1 + s2; document.write("The result of strings s1 and s2 added together: "); document.write(s3);
From the results of this program, you should now understand what the
difference is between a number and a
String We can also multiply, subtract,
and divide using the
/ operators respectively. Notice that we're still within the realm
of HTML. If we need a new line, we simply use the
<br /> HTML
tag to break the current one.
Date and time
Let's go over how to work with date and time. This will be your very first
script that would actually be useful for your website. Everything we need can be
found in the
Date object, including both the date and time. We'll
show you how to create this object and how to work with it. We create it using
new keyword which will store it into a variable in the same way
it does with numbers or
let d = new Date(); // creates a variable which will contain the current date
A classic variable can't do much more than just carry a value.
Simply put, objects are smarter. If we store them into a variable, we can use
so-called methods on them. Remember the
document object and the
write method. Working with dates is done similarly.
On the date object, we're able to call the following methods:
getDate()- Returns the current numerical day of the month,
1is the first day.
getMonth()- Returns the current numerical month of the year. January is
0so you have to add 1.
getFullYear()- Returns the current year as a 4 digit number.
getHours()- Returns hours.
getMinutes()- Returns minutes.
getSeconds()- Returns seconds.
getTime()- This method returns the number of milliseconds since 1/1/1970, this format is used often in computer science (known as the UNIX TimeStamp).
The methods are not named very well, but we can't really do anything about it
Now, let's write the current date and time:
let d = new Date(); // creates a variable which will contain the current date document.write("Today is: " + (d.getMonth() + 1) + "/" + d.getDate() + "/" + d.getFullYear()); document.write("<br />"); document.write("Time: " + d.getHours() + ":" + (d.getMinutes()));
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