Encapsulation is one of the cornerstones of the object-oriented programming philosophy. We also use the term visibility for this issue, which already indicates what the concept is about. Encapsulation allows us to hide the properties or methods of an object that we then can use from within the object but are no longer accessible from the outside. So we can't access them via the dot operator, but they can be access by various object methods.
The advantage of hiding properties and methods is to prevent errors. Programmers use a given object as a black box and only as it was designed. The internal code that other objects should not interfere with is then hidden.
In 2015, two new data types were introduced with the ES6 standard:
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